Crawl Space Foam Board and Vapor Barrier
If you're against mechanically attaching foam board and vapor barrier to the wall because you're concerned about putting holes in your foundation wall, you could try an adhesive. Our two-sided butyl tape would hold pretty well, typically.
Keep in mind that any adhesive is going to fail most cases over time. I have seen crawl spaces where they use a polyurethane caulk and it lasts forever, or at least it seems like it lasts forever. But eventually, all polyurethanes, all adhesives we believe will eventually fail. That is why we want to mechanically attach plastic and foam board to the walls every time.
Attaching Vapor Barrier to Foundation Walls
Lastly, don't tape plastic to cinderblock. The tape doesn't stick well to it because of loose granules that can fall off easily, and eventually, the tape will fall off as well. I've seen people do that time and time again. That's not recommended at all. Two-sided butyl tape is going to be better than our white seam tape going up on the cinder block. We also recommend using Christmas tree fasteners in addition to the butyl tape to ensure the vapor barrier stays attached much longer.
If you're wanting to maybe use a spray foam combination mixed with a Christmas tree fastener, check out the video below so that you can watch the Ninjas put up plastic after a spray foam application on a brick wall.